- ‘With my parents I can tell them anything’: intimacy levels within British Chinese families
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However, Chinese managers did not evaluate guanxi scenarios as significantly more positive than Brazilians did. Brazilians were most negative about both types of influence. Hypotheses 4 relate to the prediction of local scenarios positiveness. Before testing such hypotheses, the mean index of business corruptibility was obtained for each sample.
Again, none of the regressions computed showed a significant explanation of values on positivity, rejecting hypothesis 4a. Hypothesis 4b refers to the relation between mean endorsement of business corruptibility and scenario positivity. This was tested separately for each nation. Positivity was linked with business corruptibility for the respective scenario type by nation.
The results indicate that both informal influence styles were rated as representative of their local indigenous designation and typical of what occurs within their local cultural contexts. However, only jeitinho can fully satisfy the criterion of uniqueness. The jeitinho scenarios were perceived as significantly more typical by Brazilians than by the Chinese population sampled. More strikingly, guanxi was rated as more typical by Brazilians than by Chinese respondents. Thus, the majority of these influence processes must be considered culture-related rather than culture-bound.
The styles of influence exemplified by the scenarios used in this study were not popular with respondents, with very few mean ratings exceeding scale midpoints. Furthermore, the cultural distinctiveness of these styles is unrelated to their popularity. While there is evidence for the distinctiveness of jeitinho to Brazil, the Brazilian ratings of positivity were particularly low and lowest of all in respect of jeitinho.
It is possible that this result had such an outcome because participants, managers, and students, assess jeitinho according to its negative definition, which is related to corruption, social and individual loss, as well as disbelief in the general contemporary Brazilian way of life Barbosa, The distinctive Brazilian combination of frequent informal influence processes and their relatively lesser popularity underlines the need for distinctive Brazilian management practices e.
The inclusion of controls for acquiescence provides the necessary assurance of measurement validity. Given the known global distribution of acquiescent responding, it is likely that the present effects would have been stronger rather than weaker if controls had not been included. Both studies indicated that there are elements in common between informal forms of influence in widely varying cultural contexts. Rather than featuring different types of informal influence, national cultures appear to differ more in the frequency and intensity with which these processes occur.
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It is important to consider how these findings might contribute to a more universally valid model of influence within organizations. Guanxi mainly rests on a strong degree of relatedness between the parties involved. In contrast, mainstream models of influence have focused more on the effectiveness of formally appointed leaders Aycan, b ; House et al. These approaches to the study of influence are not independent of one another, since relatedness can be an important element in the effectiveness of a formally appointed leader.
Influence based on relatedness entails the need to maintain and sustain the relationships that are involved. It is evident that in those locations where indigenous social influence processes have been proposed, indigenous ways of maintaining in-group relationships have also been identified. These aspects of local cultures may sustain types of relationships within which influence processes identified as typical are constrained.
In some cultures, influence may occur primarily in the context of hierarchy and of long-term relatedness. In other cultures, there may be more peer influence and more influence between strangers.
This study indicates substantial commonality between the indigenous influence styles that were studied. However, this finding in no way undermines the utility of employing these concepts to understand aspects of organizational behavior in their locations of origin. On the contrary, it suggests that insights accomplished in one such setting may help to enlighten similar phenomena in a broader range of locations.
‘With my parents I can tell them anything’: intimacy levels within British Chinese families
By conducting multiple nation comparisons, we can best assess the validity of conclusions drawn from studies that have involved only one or at most two nations. There is strong intolerance against discrimination enrooted within Brazilian society due to the historical myth of their mixed formation as a nation. It is believed and spread in various segments of society that blacks, whites and Indians joined together, each bringing a different characteristic that, equally bounded together, created Brazilian people. Therefore, Brazilians have adopted this image of being accepting, warm and tolerant people and any attempt to deviate from this image is frowned upon by society in general.
The jeitinho importance lies in the fact that it is seen as a way to establish equality and social justice in an otherwise socially asymmetrical society. The social disparities encountered in this scenario are in many ways softened by the use of jeitinho. It allows each person to be seen as individuals or equal human beings free from social inequalities, expressing only a hierarchy of needs and the present situational inequality. Of course, we cannot disregard that its excessive usage, or its use in certain contexts might, in fact, have negative consequences and set solid bases for corruption.
Unlike the idea carried by some authors such as Guerreiro Ramos Barbosa, that believe the jeitinho is bound to fade with further industrialization and development, it has persevered through the largest periods of industrialization and development and it has shown that it will most likely continue to play a central role in Brazilian society as an instrument of egalitarian treatment and social identity for years to come. Ying has a partially similar prospective for the future of guanxi , in which might be useful at the entry stage of a foreign company in China, but other factors will take over its importance later on.
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Chinese social interaction: harmony and hierarchy on the Good Earth. Bond Ed. The handbook of Chinese psychology pp. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Goodenough, W. Toward a working theory of culture. Borofsky Ed. Assessing cultural anthropology pp. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gregg, G. The Middle East: a cultural psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. House, R. Leadership, culture and organizations: the Globe study of 62 nations.
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